Enigma

Monoliths
The Lost City
Mysterious disappearances
UFO crash in New Mexico
What killed the young pharaoh ?
Origins
Who is Behind The Murders ?
The Ghost Ship
Eustache Dauger
The Disappearance
Great Pyramid of Giza
What Secret Hides the Legendary Monument ?
Did They Really Exist ?
The Assassination of John F Kennedy
Is It Real ?
The Sinner Denigrated by the Church
The Predictions of Michel de Nostredame
The Oldest Civilization of Meso America
The Moai of Rapa Nui
The Decline of the Mayan Civilization
The Most Secret Military Zone In The World
The Prince of Darkness
The Lost City
Guardians of the Secret
Three Caravels On The Road To India
The Eternal Saga
The Fabulous Land Of Gold
The Books Written By The Gods
An Endless Quest
The Sources Of The Arcanes
Extraterrestrials Live Among Us
The Abominable Snowman
The Goat Sucker
The Conspiracy Theory
Mythology and Symbolism
And The Legend of Sherwood
Grimoire and Rituals
The Book Of Laws Of The Dead
Fallen Angels
Spiritism and Ghosts
Ghosts and Haunted Houses
Lycanthropy
Exorcism of the Demons by a Shaman Priest
Are We Alone ?
The Sixth Sense of People
A Matter of Faith ?
The Modern Prometheus
What Did It Look Like ?
The Deadly Song of the Fish Woman
City of the Cosmos
The Secret Fortune of the Abbé Saunière
The Engineer of the Future
The People of Amma
Has It Existed ?
The Legend of Sasquatch
The Greatest Political Scandal of the United States
Her Disappearance
The Gift of Foreseeing the Future
The Marks of the Christ
He Is Alive !
Are They Simply Tales ?
Who Was He ?
Voodoo and Golems - Myth ?
The Celtic's Spiritual Elite
A Monument That Defies Time
Universal Deluge
The Feeling of Already Seen
Are Black Holes Time Breaches?
The Child Who Came From None
The Lost Colony
Has She Risen ?
Mediator Between the Spiritual and Material World
The Practitioner of Yoga
Origin of Misfortunes
Emotional Forcefields
A City Dug In The Rock
The Lost Continent
A Site of Legend
The Dead Sea Scrolls
The Fury of Building
A Celestial And Sacred Place
Ayers Rock
Just a Myth ?
Dead in a Tragic Accident?
Magical City
And The Star of Bethlehem
Mysterious Explosion in Siberia
The Meaning of Dreams
The Route Without Gravity ?
500 KM of Geoglyphs
Do Stars Dictate Our Destiny ?
Where Do We Come From ?
Fiction or Reality ?
The Book That Lit The Pyres
Poisoned by Arsenic ?
Historic Reality ?
What Has Become Of The Beautiful Queen Of Egypt ?
A Kingdom Without Men
Ogre or Bluebeard ?
Who Wrote It ?
Under the Influence of Secret Societies ?
Has He Existed ?
Assassinated By His Womens ?
Serial Killer of the Eighteenth Century ?
Where is the Cemetery ?
A Premonition 14 Years in Advance
Premonitorial Signs Announced His Death ?
Apparitions Or Hallucinations ?
Where Is It ?

William Shakespeare - Who Was He ?

William Shakespeare

In the 1770s, an English cleric named James Wilmot retired to his native Warwickshire to devote the rest of his life to the study of his two favorite authors, Francis Bacon and William Shakespeare. The village where he had become the pastor, Barton-on-the-Heath, being only about ten kilometers from Stratford, Shakespeare's hometown, there he began by inquiring about traces - stories or anecdotes - that the illustrious playwright could not fail to have left in the local memory. He found none. After having studied Shakespeare's work, Wilmot had concluded that Shakespeare was a very cultured man, who must therefore have a vast library. For years, he searched every small private library within an 80-kilometer radius of Stratford. In vain - not the least volume that could have belonged to the dramatic poet. He concluded that the man named Shakespeare could not be the author of the plays attributed to him. Only one man had the qualities required to write these masterpieces, and this man was Wilmot's other favorite author, Francis Bacon!

William Shakespeare

Who was this actor to whom was attributed nearly forty pieces? What is known is that a boy named William, son of Mary and John Shakespeare, was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564; that the bankruptcy of his father, who was a banker, forced him to leave school at the age of twelve. The young William then worked as a butcher or as a schoolmaster. At the age of eighteen, he seduced a nine-year-old senior, Anne Hathaway. As she became pregnant, the two young people had to get married and William found himself father of three children (including twins). It was then that he left for London, where he managed to find work as an actor. He then wrote a play entitled Titus Andronicus; bloody and horrible to perfection, it met with immediate success.

After the defeat of the Invincible Armada in 1588, Shakespeare produced a series of historical (and patriotic) dramas that were very successful. In his forties, he retired to the house he had acquired in Stratford. He died there at the age of fifty-two. Throughout his career, no one has ever expressed the slightest doubt about the authorship of the works he was signing.

The Marlowe Hypothesis

A friend and rival of Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe died stabbed in a tavern in 1593, at the age of twenty-nine. Marlowe was not only a writer; he was also a spy at the services of the Crown, and had undesirable frequentations. Two weeks before his death, officers had arrested his friend Thomas Kyd, the author of the play The Spanish Tragedy, and found at his home "atheistic writings" denying the divinity of Christ. Under torture Kyd confessed that these documents belonged to Marlowe. At the time of his death, the latter had problems with authorities - especially since he made no secret of his homosexuality, punishable at the time by the gallows. Some concluded that Marlowe may have had good reason to want to disappear ...

This is the thesis supported by the American Calvin Hoffman in his book The Murder of The Man Who Was Shakespeare: with the complicity of his aristocratic friends, Marlowe fled abroad, and the pieces he continued to write were awarded to actor William Shakespeare. As for the corpse examined by the investigators, it could be the anonymous victim of any brawl.

A. L. Rowse, an Elizabethan theater specialist, objects that Shakespeare's plays are full of jokes, while none of them are found in Marlowe's, which shows little interest in bawdy talk. It is therefore unlikely that Marlowe and Shakespeare were one and the same man.

What about Francis Bacon?

In 1888, an American parliamentarian, Ignatius Donnelly, published a big book entitled The Great Cryptogram: Francis Bacon's Code in the Shakespeare's So-Called Pieces, which was to have a strong influence on all "anti-Strathfords" (those who deny to Shakespeare the paternity of his work). He claimed to demonstrate that Francis Bacon (who was a cryptography enthusiast) concealed coded messages in Shakespeare's plays proving that he was the true author. After studying the texts for years and trying all kinds of deciphering keys, Donnelly managed to extract the following message: Seas / ill / said / that / More / low / or / Shak'st / spur / never / writ / a / word / of / them; either Cecil said that Marlowe or Shakespeare never writ a word of them ("Cecil says that neither Marlowe nor Shakespeare wrote a word about it" - Robert Cecil was the chief minister of Queen Elizabeth). As a result of Donnelly, hundreds of maniacs scoured for cryptograms in Shakespeare and the work of other great writers.

In fact, just read a biography of Bacon to measure the absurdity of this thesis. Bacon and Shakespeare are the opposite of each other. The author of The Dream of a Summer Night and How You Like It was obviously a warm and caring person; Ben Johnson called him the "lovable Shakespeare". No one would think of calling Bacon "amiable": he was a man of prodigious intelligence, but he was eternally dissatisfied, a cold calculator animated by the least noble of ambitions: "Political power, that is what I desire: power over men and the affairs of the world. "

The unlovable Bacon

On the death of his father, the young Francis Bacon found himself practically penniless, at the age of nineteen. His uncle Lord Burghley, who was Lord Treasurer, could easily have helped him, but he preferred to favor his own son, Robert Cecil. Becoming a lawyer, Bacon was able to win, by his flattery, the friendship of the favorite of Queen Elizabeth I, the dashing and talented Earl of Essex. The latter regularly gave him money - Bacon was a pierced basket - and he used his influence with the Queen to promote the career of his protégé. When Elizabeth preferred another candidate for the post of Master of the Rolls, the count offered Bacon, in consolation, a beautiful property. In 1596, Essex captured Cadiz, Spain; his popularity was at its height, but it made him gray. After his military fiasco in Ireland, he fell out of favor. So he tried to foment a rebellion, was arrested and put on trial. Many felt that he was carried away by his impetuous character and that he did not really intend to overthrow the queen; so was expected a relatively light sentence.

Against all odds, Bacon betrayed his friend: he delivered a brilliant speech in which he accused Essex of treason, saying that "as a friend," he knew that the count was planning to seize the throne. As a result Essex was sentenced to death and executed.

It is impossible to find an excuse for Bacon. He acts as he did for the sole purpose of attracting the good graces of the queen and furthering his career. For sending Essex to death, Elizabeth rewarded him with 1,200 pounds - but did not give him the job he wanted. She was shy of him.

After the death of the queen, Bacon tried to seduce James I, this time successfully. The king ennobled him and appointed him attorney general in 1613. In 1618, he finally reached the summit of his ambitions, becoming Lord Chancellor. But three years later, he was removed from office for corruption. Having recognized his faults, he retired and died in 1626, bitter and disappointed.

The Earl of Oxford

Around 1914, a teacher by the name of John Thomas Looney was persuaded in turn that the Stratford actor had not been able to write the pieces attributed to him. Working as a modern profiler, he establishes the psychological profile of the author. By elimination, he came to the conclusion that a single Elizabethan could match his portrait robot: Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford. His book, Shakespeare Identified, was as captivating as a crime novel; unfortunately he published it under his name. But "looney" is about the equivalent in English of "zinzin" in French, so that everyone believed in a joke - all the more funny that the unfortunate "antistratfordiens" already counted in their ranks a certain Silliman ("idiot"), who thought of Marlowe, and a George Battey ("crazy"), for whom Shakespeare was Daniel Defoe!

Poor Looney's book was soon forgotten, but his theory has since been taken up by American scholar Charlton Obgurn. His big book, The Mysterious William Shakespeare, is also fascinating. But if Ogburn is convincing when he explains that Oxford was a wonderful poet, and that he might well have written Hark, hark the lark or Full fathom five, he can hardly persuade the reader that late plays, such as King Lear, The Winter's Tale or The Storm, was written before 1604, the year of Oxford's death. Looney bypassed the difficulty by assigning them to other authors: The Storm to Raleigh Walter, and Henry VIII to John Fletcher. Ogburn defends the idea that these pieces would have come into existence much sooner than we think, but his arguments have not convinced, any more than those of Looney.

The "bardola"

It must be noted that it was not until Shakespeare became the object of a cult that these strange speculations appeared. Previously, appreciations of his work were much more nuanced: Samuel Pepys called Le Songe a summer night "the most insipid and ridiculous piece I have seen in my life". But in the middle of the nineteenth century, Shakespeare is considered an absolute genius, whose every line escaped criticism. Emerson compared him to a mountain. A famous sonnet by Matthew Arnold illustrates the veneration of the "Stratford Bard" (a veneration that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry").

It starts like this:
The others are subject to our questioning.
You are free.
We interrogate again and again.
You stay there, smiling, unreachable,
Rising above the understanding ...

A comic illusion

It is undoubtedly this bewildered admiration devoted to Shakespeare that is at the origin of all these speculations. If he really was this superhuman genius, how can you explain that his friends and his relatives never noticed? Burdocking inevitably leads to a double personality for Shakespeare - and since one Shakespeare hides another, this "other" might just as well be Francis Bacon or the Earl of Oxford - and why not even Queen Elizabeth herself. If we admit that Shakespeare was the perfectly normal man that his contemporaries knew and loved, that he was distinguished only by the extraordinary talent with which he handled the language, then the controversy over his "true identity "appears as a very amusing fantasmatization - a comic illusion.