Persona (19)

Still alive ?
Who was the famous playwright poet ?
A murderous plot disguised as suicide ?
Her Disappearance
Poisoned ?
The mysteries of the Third Reich
The prince of darkness
The engineer of the future
The discovery of America
The assassination of John F Kennedy
The Sinner Denigrated by the Church
The Predictions of Michel de Nostredame
Who is Behind The Murders ?
Has She Risen ?
Eustache Dauger
The Eternal Saga
Ogre or Bluebeard ?
The Child Who Came From None
Premonitorial Signs Announced His Death ?
Has He Existed ?

Science (10)

The Disappearance
Are we alone ?
Who are our ancestors ?
Fiction or Reality ?
The Practitioner of Yoga
Are Black Holes Time Breaches?
Origins
Where is the Cemetery ?
Do Stars Dictate Our Destiny ?
500 KM of Geoglyphs

Ufology (3)

UFO crash in New Mexico
The Most Secret Military Zone In The World
Extraterrestrials Live Among Us

Parapsychology (6)

The Sixth Sense of People
The Gift of Foreseeing the Future
Emotional Forcefields
The Meaning of Dreams
A Premonition 14 Years in Advance

Mysterious Place (8)

The Moai of Rapa Nui
The Lost City
City of the Cosmos
A City Dug In The Rock
A Celestial And Sacred Place
Magical City
The Secret Fortune of the Abbé Saunière
Ayers Rock

Egypt (6)

What killed the young pharaoh ?
What Secret Hides the Legendary Monument ?
A Monument That Defies Time
What Has Become Of The Beautiful Queen Of Egypt ?
Assassinated By His Womens ?
The Books Written By The Gods

Cryptozoology (10)

Mythology and Symbolism
Is It Real ?
The Abominable Snowman
The Goat Sucker
Lycanthropy
The Deadly Song of the Fish Woman
The Legend of Sasquatch
Are They Simply Tales ?
Voodoo and Golems - Myth ?
Serial Killer of the Eighteenth Century ?

Strange Phenomenon (9)

Mysterious disappearances
The Ghost Ship
Spiritism and Ghosts
The Feeling of Already Seen
Ghosts and Haunted Houses
Exorcism of the Demons by a Shaman Priest
Mysterious Explosion in Siberia
The Route Without Gravity ?
Apparitions Or Hallucinations ?

Bible and Religion (11)

Who Wrote It ?
A Matter of Faith ?
Guardians of the Secret
Fallen Angels
The Marks of the Christ
Universal Deluge
The Dead Sea Scrolls
And The Star of Bethlehem
Where Is It ?
The Sources Of The Arcanes

Magic (4)

Grimoire and Rituals
The Book Of Laws Of The Dead
Mediator Between the Spiritual and Material World
Origin of Misfortunes

Monument (5)

Monoliths
Did They Really Exist ?
What Did It Look Like ?
Has It Existed ?
The Fury of Building

Legend and Myth (7)

The Lost Continent
A Site of Legend
Just a Myth ?
The Lost City
The Fabulous Land Of Gold
And The Legend of Sherwood
The Modern Prometheus

History (4)

The Book That Lit The Pyres
Historic Reality ?
The Greatest Political Scandal of the United States
The Lost Colony

Relic (2)

An Endless Quest

People and Civilization (5)

The Oldest Civilization of Meso America
The Decline of the Mayan Civilization
The People of Amma
The Celtic's Spiritual Elite
A Kingdom Without Men

Conspiracy Theory (1)

The Conspiracy Theory
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Homer

Author of the Iliad and the Odyssey ?

Homer

Illustrious Ancient Greece bard who lived in the 8th century BC, Homer is an enigmatic character and would be the author of the two oldest texts of European classical literature: the Iliad and the Odyssey. Belief is that Homer was born in Colophon, although many other cities are also mentioned as a possible homeland, and suffered from blindness.

The problem of knowing who are the true writers of these two epics and whether Homer is a genuine individual is generally and scientifically refered to as the Homeric Question. In addition to the Iliad and the Odyssey, Ancient Greece would owe to Homer many other major texts of the time, such as Homeric Hymns and Batrachomyomachia, a parody of the Iliad.

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The Iliad

Iliad

The Iliad, the first of two epics attributed to Homer, recount events leading to the mythical Trojan War in the form of versified hymns. Exemplary poetic work, the stories of the Iliad bestow great importance to warrior worship, romance, heroic characters such as Achilles and Odysseus, and to gods who manifest themselves under the guise of Apollo, Poseidon and Athena. Over time, the original copy of Homer's Iliad has been transcribed multiple times to the point where there is a large number of replicas all more or less different. The story goes that even the virtuous Alexander the Great had in his possession a version of the Iliad during his bloody conquests.

The Odyssey

Odyssey

The Odyssey, the second great epic credited to Homer, traces the life of Ithaca's king Odysseus in the years following the end of the Trojan War. The Odyssey is a fantastic mediterranean adventure filled with legendary monsters, wizards and witches and chimerical creatures like sirens. After ten years of adventures in the Mediterranean, Odysseus returns to Ithaca where he defeats pretenders before reconquering Penelope and regaining his throne. In the Odyssey, Homer abandons the warrior side of things in favor of peace; the gods are virtually absent.

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A legendary epic

The stories told in Homer's poems were a monster success during the seventh century BC and the Iliad verses were hummed across Greece as a whole. Praised for their literary excellence and their symbolism, the Iliad and the Odyssey were teached to young Greeks who had to memorize them.

Timeline

Manuscript of the Iliad and Odyssey

If we consider philosopher Friedrich August Wolf's 1795 thesis published in his Latin manuscript Prolegomena ad Homerum, Homer as we imagine him would not correspond to the true Homer who composed the Iliad and the Odyssey at a time when writing did not yet exist. Some advance dates located somewhere between the 10th and 9th centuries BC. Verses would've been orally transmitted for several decades or even centuries and would only have been written down during the eighth century BC while writing had just started to make its appearance in Greece. At least that is what archaeological evidences seems to attest.

Many authors?

The historical veracity of a poet named Homer as sole author of the Iliad and the Odyssey was accepted without questioning until 1670, year in which Abbé d'Aubignac published Conjectures académiques (Dissertation sur l'Iliade) in which he exposes several contradictions thus raising the Homeric Question. This was the first time that one supposed several artists had written the famous epics.

Indeed, it seems that the literary style of the two works diverges significantly. The Iliad is impeccable and much more structured, a real model for bards of the time. The writing of the Odyssey, meanwhile, is much more disunited and does not seem to follow a fixed pattern. Moreover, the themes of the two stories are very much opposed; the Iliad is especially interested in war, heroes and gods while the Odyssey is built on a mix of adventure, fantastic monsters and magic. So many clues that points to many craftsman ...

Much like the Bible was first attributed to Moses, it is possible that Homer's cantatas are actually a collection of narratives and oral traditions slowly developed during the eighth century BC by several writers.

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